surface coal mining process

Surface Mining Process

OFFICE of SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION and ENFORCEMENT U.S. Department of the Interior Trapper Mine, C-07519 and C-079641, Environmental Assessment SURFACE MINING PROCESS • Construct structures to control runoff and protect surface and ground water quality. • Remove topsoil from planned disturbance areas – either place directly on regraded

Surface mining | Britannica

This process is called surface mining and was widely used as a method for extracting coal in the Ohio River valley and in England. This technique is also used for mining phosphate deposits, gypsum, gravel, limestone, copper, iron, and other minerals.

Coal Types, Formation and Methods of Mining - epcamr.org

In addition, strip mining is ecologically very destructive unless the mining company makes a conscious effort to restore the countryside. Strip mining is the process of scraping the coal from the top surface of the ground. The second phase in the evolutionary development of coal is lignite. Lignite is found in great quantities in the Western ...

OSMRE Regulating Coal Mines - Office of Surface Mining

It ensures that coal mining operations are conducted in an environmentally responsible manner and that the land is adequately reclaimed during and following the mining process. Most coal-mining States now have the primary responsibility to regulate surface coal mining on lands within their jurisdiction, with OSMRE performing an oversight role.

Colliery: How Coal Mining Works?

Layers of rock and dirt above and between the coal seams are removed. Coal seams are removed with excess soil and rock placed in an adjacent valley. Large scale earth moving equipment is used to excavate and remove coal from lower layers. The equipment used depends on the method and scale of the surface mining method being employed.

The Actual Difference Between Surface and Underground Mining

Surface mining is suitable for large, low-grade ore deposits which occur below a thin layer of rock, or alluvial deposits found in sand and riverbeds. Underground mining is used for small, high-grade deposits covered with a thick overburden (soil and rock above the ore), or for deep and sloping deposits. General Process

Surface mining – strip, open pit, mountaintop removal ...

High wall Mining: High wall mining is another form of surface mining .In this method the Hydraulic Push - beam Transfer Mechanism is used to cut across the earth's surface and extract the coal. In this process the machine penetrates deep into the earth's surface to produce large volume of coal.

6 Stages of the Mining Process | BOSS Magazine

used in WV surface coal mining in 2009. Considering an average price of blasting agents (bulk emulsions, slurry and ANFO) of $1.14 per kg, the surface coal mines in WV spent almost $400 million for explosives alone. This does not include additional blasting accessories such as deto-nators, boosters, detonating cords, lead lines, additional

Kentucky Statutes > Chapter 350 – Surface Coal Mining ...

Operations: means surface coal mining operations, all of the premises, facilities, roads, and equipment used in the process of producing coal from a designated area or removing overburden for the purpose of determining the location, quality, or quantity of a natural coal deposit or the activity to facilitate or accomplish the extraction or the ...

About Surface Mining :: Banks Group

Surface mining is an operation that involves the recovery of shallow coal deposits from the ground through the removal of overlying rock by excavators and dump trucks Surface coal mining process Typically surface coal mines work to depths of 50 to 100m.

Effects of surface coal mining and land reclamation on ...

Apr 01, 2019· Surface mining techniques include strip mining, mountaintop removal mining, and open-pit mining. Although mining and reclamation operations are complex and regionally specific, the overall coal mining process consists of similar sequential stages (preparing the surface, drilling, blasting, overburden removal, loading the deposit, haulage of the mined deposit, and rehabilitation).

Surface Mining Methods and Equipment

UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS CIVIL ENGINEERING – Vol. II - Surface Mining Methods and Equipment - J. Yamatomi and S. Okubo ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Figure 2. Change in production and productivity of US coal mines The higher productivity for open pit mining equipment also lowers costs.

Surface Mining for Coal in Missouri - DNR

A surface coal mine operator must go through a lengthy process of obtaining a permit. The permit is an actual plan that establishes a reasonable expectation that mining and reclamation can be completed without any adverse effects to human welfare and the environment.

Env. Science 16 Flashcards | Quizlet

process by which crushed ore is melted at high temperatures to seperate impurities from molten metal. placer deposits. minerals concentrated by wind and water movement into surface deposit. First step in surface coal mining. to remove and set aside the soil that covers the area to be mined. a serious hazard of coal mining is.

AP-42 11.9 Western Surface Coal Mining

surface coal mining. The remainder of this report is structured as follows: Section 2 describes the revisions made to the surface coal mining section; References are given in Section 3; the appendices contain the revised AP-42 section and supporting information.

Selection of overburden surface mining method in West ...

used in WV surface coal mining in 2009. Considering an average price of blasting agents (bulk emulsions, slurry and ANFO) of $1.14 per kg, the surface coal mines in WV spent almost $400 million for explosives alone. This does not include additional blasting accessories such as deto-nators, boosters, detonating cords, lead lines, additional

Coal mining and transportation - U.S. Energy Information ...

Mining coal . Coal miners use large machines to remove coal from the earth. Many U.S. coal deposits, called coal beds or seams, are near the earth's surface, while others are deep underground.Modern mining methods allow coal miners to easily reach most of the nation's coal reserves and to produce about three times more coal in one hour than in 1978.

Appendix E: Coal Mining and Processing Methods | Coal ...

In surface mining, the ground covering the coal seam (the overburden) is first removed to expose the coal seam for extraction. The elements of a surface mining operation are (1) topsoil removal and storage for later use, (2) drilling and blasting the strata overlying the coal seam, (3) loading and transporting this fragmented overburden material (called spoil), (4) drilling and blasting the ...

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 - Wikipedia

The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States.. SMCRA created two programs: one for regulating active coal mines and a second for reclaiming abandoned mine lands. SMCRA also created the Office of Surface Mining, an agency within the Department of the Interior, to promulgate ...

Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation | ArcNews

Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation. Surface coal mining involves disturbing overlying rock layers (overburden) to expose and extract coal reserves using the area mining method wherein the overburden above the uppermost coal seam and the innerburden between the lower coal seams are removed in parallel strips (pits) across the coalfield until the area is mined.

Surface Coal Mining - Pennsylvania DEP

Surface Coal Mining. The primary methods of surface coal mining used in Pennsylvania are: Strip Mining: Layers of soil and rock overburden are removed the coal exposed coal seam is excavated.The area is then backfilled, regraded, and replanted during the reclamation process.

Coal Mining and Processing | Energy Trends Insider

Surface mining can be used when the coal is buried less than 200 feet underground. In surface mining, giant machines remove the top-soil and layers of rock to expose large beds of coal. Once the mining is finished, the dirt and rock are returned to the pit, the …

Strip Mining - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Coal is primarily obtained by surface mining (sometimes called " strip mining," but not by the industry) and underground mining. There are two main sources of power plant coal in the United States: (1) Pennsylvanian-age coals in eastern basins like the Appalachian, Illinois, and Black Warrior, and (2) Paleocene-age coals in western states ...

Mining - Surface mining | Britannica

Mining - Mining - Surface mining: It has been estimated that more than two-thirds of the world's yearly mineral production is extracted by surface mining. There are several types of surface mining, but the three most common are open-pit mining, strip mining, and quarrying. These differ from one another in the mine geometries created, the techniques used, and the minerals produced.